Observing the Universe We leave the city lights, noise, haste behind ... This collection of images transports us to the vastness of the Cosmos, to the beauty of the night sky. You just have to look up ... and observe. Starry sky Radio telescopes Paranal Hill Messier catalog Northern sky Southern sky Milky Way Star trails Ursa Major Orion Constellations Pleiades Eclipse southern hemisphere Mastodontic clouds Conjunction Venus-Jupiter Perseid Rain Watching the Universe Custom Search
The Milky Way The Milky Way galaxy is the one that contains the Solar System and, therefore, the Earth. It is part of the Local Group. A path in the sky On serene nights we can see a white strip that crosses the sky from side to side, with many stars. They are only a small part of our neighbors.
Origin and evolution of the Universe How and when did the Universe we know begin to exist? Has it always been like now? Astronomers are mostly convinced that the Universe arose from a great explosion (Big Bang), which occurred between 13,600 and 13,850 million years before the current moment.
Types of nebulae One of the most notable aspects of the nebulae is their variety of shapes and structures. Thanks to modern telescopes and the use of computers, detailed digital photos have been developed that, by means of the appropriate computer programs, can be colored to obtain spectacular images.
What is an emission nebula? The emission nebulae are large clouds of gas and interstellar dust, where stars are born. The emission nebulae are bright clouds of gas and dust that host young stars inside. At first, the nebulae are cold and dark. As the interstellar material concentrates, the pressure and temperature in the center of the nebula increase.
How was the Universe formed? Edwin Hubble discovered that the Universe expands. Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity had already foreseen. What was there before the Universe? The question is entirely incorrect if we admit that time also began to count on the Universe. If there was no time, there was no "before".
Materials and radiation In the Universe there are scattered materials, inside and outside the galaxies. We talk about interstellar matter, light, background radiation and dark matter. Interstellar matter The gases and dust particles between the stars and galaxies are formed. Most of it is not visible, but it can be detected through its gravitational effects and electromagnetic emissions.
Nebulae Nebulae are structures of interstellar gas and dust. Depending on whether they are more or less dense, they are visible, or not, from Earth. As part of galaxies, nebulae can be found anywhere in interstellar space. One of the most famous is the Nebula of the Horse's Head, in Orion.
What is a dark nebula? In the cold areas of the Cosmos, where gas and interstellar dust are very abundant, it usually happens that the material is concentrated and forms huge icy clouds. Dark nebulae, also called absorption nebulae, are composed mostly of hydrogen, which is the fuel of the stars.
Evolution of the Stars The stars evolve over millions of years. In reality, they never stop evolving and changing, from birth to death. They are born when a large amount of matter accumulates in a place in space. The material is compressed and heated until a nuclear reaction begins, which consumes matter, converting it into energy.
The expansion of the Universe The discovery of the expansion of the Universe begins in 1912, with the works of the American astronomer Vesto M. Slipher. While studying the spectra of the galaxies, he observed that, except in the nearest ones, the spectrum lines shift towards red. This means that most galaxies move away from the Milky Way since, correcting this effect in the spectra of galaxies, it is shown that the stars that integrate them are composed of known chemical elements.
Star clusters Stars do not appear in isolation, but form groups that we call "clusters." A cluster of stars, is a group of related stars that are held together by the effect of gravitation. Star clusters are classified into two groups: open clusters, which have no definite shape, and globular clusters, which are spherical or almost spherical.
Forces and movements Gravity is the force of attraction between objects. In the Universe all matter moves because of it and other forces. Gravity depends on the mass of the objects and the distance that separates them. The more mass they have and the closer they are, the greater the force. When the double is separated, the force is reduced to a quarter.
The birth and evolution of the stars depends on their mass. They are formed from a nebula that is composed of dust particles and hydrogen gas. Gravity binds this material into globules, whose centers are heated until hydrogen begins to become helium by nuclear reactions.
The Hubble Space Telescope has obtained these images of the expansive halo of light surrounding the star V838 Monocerotis, a rather unusual red supergiant. It is about 20,000 light years away, towards the constellation of Monoceros (the Unicorn). In full explosion it exceeded 600,000 times the luminosity of our Sun.
The supernova is a rare event. In each galaxy they usually explode every 200 years. In these explosions, most of the mass of the original star is released at high speeds. For a few days, the supernova radiates the same energy as during its entire life, coming to shine more than the set of stars that reside in its galaxy.
The core of the globular cluster NGC 6397 looks like a chest full of glittering jewels. It is located 8,200 light years towards the southern constellation of Ara, and is among the closest to the Solar System. The stars are here very close together, with a space between them of a few light-weeks, while four light-years separate us from the closest star to the Sun, Alpha Centauri.
The supernova is a rare event. In each galaxy they usually explode every 200 years. In these explosions, most of the mass of the original star is released at high speeds. For a few days, the supernova radiates the same energy as throughout its life, coming to shine more than the set of stars that reside in its galaxy.
The Hubble telescope continues to reveal striking and intricate treasures nearby; in this case, an intense star formation region known as the Great Orion Nebula. This jewel is a shocking loop around a very young star, LL Orion, shown in this photo. This arc-shaped structure is actually a shock wave of half a year-light in size, created when the stellar wind coming from the young star LL Orionis collides with the flow coming from the Orion Nebula.
The Stars In this first gallery a collection of photographs of stars is presented. Supernovae, supergiants, dwarfs, young, old, even a cluster of stars. There are also a couple of photos about areas of space where the stars are formed and a sample of the protoplanets Star formation Supernova 1987 A Young stars Red supergiant Supernova remnants Drawing Red Giant Supernova M1 The great Betelgeuse Orion: young star Protoplanets Cumulus NGC 6397 Dwarf white Larger Stars Vega Star Star Antares Cassiopeia A Star Photos in the Universe Custom Search
As if it were a butterfly, this white dwarf star begins its life by wrapping itself in a cocoon. However, in this analogy, the star would rather be the caterpillar and the cocoon of gas expelled the truly striking and beautiful stage. The planetary nebula NGC 2440 contains one of the hottest known white dwarfs.