Astronomy

Understanding WISE acronyms

Understanding WISE acronyms


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I've enoucntered many acronyms related between them, like AllWISE, WISE, NEOWISE, CatWISE, WISEA, WISEAR, WISEAF, WISEU, WISEP, WISEPA, WISEPC, WISEF, WISEPF, WISER, WISEWF, WISET, WISETF, WISENF… but I would like to understand the differences and what they refer to.

Here is my attempt (I would appreciate any corrections).

  • WISE Is the acronym for the "Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer" that compiled the WISE catalog of 2012 which is also called the "WISE Final Release Source Catalog" (yes, the same name for the spacecraft, mission and the catalog).

  • AllWISE Is the name of a later data release of the WISE mission constituting the WISE catalog for the year 2013, with many improvements over the previous, extending the work done by the WISE mission even further.

  • NEOWISE Is the name of the extended WISE mission (using the same WISE spacecraft) approved by NASA in 2010. It also appears in the names of many asteroids since this part of the mission focused on Near-Earth Objects instead of Brown Dwarfs and cool stars and resulted in a bunch of different catalogs.

  • CatWISE It is a new catalog, that was released in 2019, joining data from WISE and NEOWISE parts of the WISE mission with additional dim sources.

  • WISEF "refers to sources that are contained in the WISE Final Release Single-exposure Source Working Database"

  • WISER "refers to sources that are contained in the WISE All-Sky Release Reject Table"

  • WISEP "refers to sources that are contained in the WISE Preliminary Release Source Catalog"

  • WISEPF "refers to sources that are contained in the WISE Preliminary Release Single-exposure Source Working Database"

  • WSIEPA "refers to sources that are contained in the Atlas Tile Source Working Database"

  • WISEPC "refers to sources that are contained in the Coadd Source Working Database"

  • WISEWF "refers to the sources that are contained in the NEOWISE Post-Cryo Preliminary Release Single-Exposure Source Working Database"

  • WISEAF "refers to the sources that are contained in the All-Sky Release Single-Exposure Source Working Database"

  • WISET "refers to the sources that are contained in the 3-Band Cryo Source Working Database"

  • WISETF "refers to the sources that are contained in the 3-Band Cryo Single-Exposure Source Working Database"

  • WISENF "refers to the sources that are contained in the 2013 NEOWISE Post-Cryo Release Single-Exposure Source Working Database"

But what about WISEA, WISEU, WISEAR and others? And why the IDs of the objects change from catalog to catalog!? I'm so confused right now.


New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2010)

Driven by discoveries, and enabled by leaps in technology and imagination, our understanding of the universe has changed dramatically during the course of the last few decades. The fields of astronomy and astrophysics are making new connections to physics, chemistry, biology, and computer science. Based on a broad and comprehensive survey of scientific opportunities, infrastructure, and organization in a national and international context, New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics outlines a plan for ground- and space- based astronomy and astrophysics for the decade of the 2010's.

Realizing these scientific opportunities is contingent upon maintaining and strengthening the foundations of the research enterprise including technological development, theory, computation and data handling, laboratory experiments, and human resources. New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics proposes enhancing innovative but moderate-cost programs in space and on the ground that will enable the community to respond rapidly and flexibly to new scientific discoveries. The book recommends beginning construction on survey telescopes in space and on the ground to investigate the nature of dark energy, as well as the next generation of large ground-based giant optical telescopes and a new class of space-based gravitational observatory to observe the merging of distant black holes and precisely test theories of gravity.

New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics recommends a balanced and executable program that will support research surrounding the most profound questions about the cosmos. The discoveries ahead will facilitate the search for habitable planets, shed light on dark energy and dark matter, and aid our understanding of the history of the universe and how the earliest stars and galaxies formed. The book is a useful resource for agencies supporting the field of astronomy and astrophysics, the Congressional committees with jurisdiction over those agencies, the scientific community, and the public.


What does knowledge mean?

The word knowledge is defined first as the “acquaintance with facts, truths or principles, as from study or investigation general erudition .” It is recorded at least by the 1300s as the Middle English knouleche, which combines the verb know (a verb that means “ to perceive or understand as fact or truth to apprehend clearly and with certainty”) and – leche , which may be related to the same suffix we see in wedlock and conveys a sense of “action, practice, or state.”

Knowledge is typically gained through books, research, and delving into facts. Knowledge can also be gained in the bedroom ( hubba hubba !), as the term is sometimes used, albeit archaically, to describe sexual intercourse. As in: they had carnal knowledge of one another.


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What are ABA routing numbers? What do I need them for?

ABA numbers are codes assigned to banks by the American Bankers Association. Each American bank has its own ABA number, so they’re sometimes just called bank routing numbers.

Big banks may use a number of ABA routing numbers - the one you need will depend on exactly where you’re based.

The different digits all represent something particular:

  • the first 4 once indicated the location of the bank, although this isn’t a reliable guide any more
  • the next 4 refer to which Federal Reserve bank it uses to process its transfers
  • the ninth digit is a ‘checksum’ that validates the first eight digits

ABA numbers can change if your bank is taken over by another bank. If that does happen, you’ll need to make sure everyone you regularly pay - and everyone who pays you - has the new number. You’ll also need a new check book.


Naming the Enigma: UFOs, Abbreviations and Acronyms

The subject of unidentified flying objects has long been a confusing one. Since its inception in the late 1940s when reports of unusual aerial objects or vehicles began to appear in our skies, there was a lot of debate about what they might be, and where they might come from. Theories ranged from new Soviet surveillance technologies, perhaps being developed with the help of former German scientists that were divided among the world superpowers after the end of the war, to the more exotic possibility that some of these things might be from elsewhere, and of extraterrestrial origin.

Little about this debate has changed over the years, and even to this day, calls for renewed “official” interest in the phenomenon continue, on account of the potential security threats they might represent.

“What these UAPs were and who was flying them — whether friends, foes or unknown forces — remains a mystery,” wrote Christopher Mellon, former deputy assistant Defense secretary for intelligence and one of the current stars of History’s UFO-themed television program Unidentified, in an op-ed published by The Hill in May. “Yet careful examination of the data inevitably leads to one possible, disturbing conclusion: A potential adversary of the United States has mastered technologies we do not yet understand to achieve capabilities we cannot yet match.”

Putting aside some of the controversies presently associated with the To the Stars Academy (of which Mellon is a member), these points are valid: the possibility that new technologies could be produced by another government, and that they could be used against American interests, must be taken seriously.

Returning again to the outset of the UFO enigma in the 40s and 50s, it became apparent that the term “flying saucers” had some issues. Having come into popular use after Kenneth Arnold’s sighting of disc-like objects over Mount Rainier in the summer of 1947, the term did no justice to the discussion of alleged objects that ranged in appearance from spheres and discs, to elongated “cigar-shaped” vessels (more commonly referred to as “tic-tacs” in the parlance of today). For this reason, Edward Ruppelt, the first chief of what became the U.S.A.F.’s Project Blue Book, proposed a new and more ambiguous name for these mysteries of the sky: unidentified flying objects or UFOs.

The name stuck, although it didn’t become the exclusive phrase that Ruppelt had hoped it would. “All flying saucers are UFOs, but not all UFOs are flying saucers,” were the immortal words of the late Stanton Friedman, who had been among the many serious proponents of UFOs over the years who continued to use both terms, albeit under slightly different circumstances. Friedman’s argument, in other words, had been that any number of things could be an unidentified flying object, whereas if one were to say “flying saucer,” it is understood as being in reference to an exotic alien craft… whether or not it’s really saucer-shaped. There are good arguments that justify the use of either term, in other words.

The debate over terminology hasn’t been confined simply to what these objects should be called there has also been lasting confusion about the pronunciation and grammatical usage of “UFO”. This was recently brought to my attention again by a friend and colleague of mine, Charles Orton, who wrote to playfully scold me after hearing me refer to UFOs–the abbreviated form of unidentified flying objects–as an acronym. Charles wrote:

At the cost of sounding like my eighth grade English teacher Miss Thistlebottom, I should have thought you knew the difference between an acronym and an abbreviation (you recently referred to “UFO” as an acronym). An acronym is an abbreviation that can be, and often is, pronounced as if it were a word. An example is NASA. NASA is an acronym. NAFTA is an acronym. AATIP can be an acronym. But UFO and UAP are not acronyms. FBI and CIA and NSA and USA are not acronyms. They are abbreviations. Yet so many people in the u-fool-ogy realm today are always referring to UFO and UAP and other abbreviations as acronyms.

As my colleague correctly points out, UFO is not an acronym… if it is read as “You-Eff-Oh,” which is the common usage today. However, when Edward Ruppelt proposed the use of the term back in the early 1950s, he had also suggested that UFO be pronounced “You-Foe.”

Edward Ruppelt, first chief of the USAF’s Project Blue Book.

For whatever reason, this never quite caught on, although if it had, it certainly would have made “UFO” the acronym he had intended for it to be. Nonetheless, we could argue that the use of the term as he intended it was as an acronym, and should be pronounced as “Youfoe”… but good luck getting people on board with making that change!

Another brief side note, while we’re discussing all of this: another item of debate I’ve seen over the years has to do with whether the plural form of UFO should be written as UFOs (with no apostrophe), or as UFO’s. Checking this with Ashford University’s online Grammatical Resource Page, they state explicitly that either form is acceptable: “For numbers, abbreviations without periods, and symbols used as words, the apostrophe before the –s is optional if the plural is clear.” To further illustrate the point, one of the examples they provide is “UFOs OR UFO’s.”

Today, the matter remains as complex as ever. Since the terms unidentified flying object (as well as its abbreviated form, UFO, which as we’ve seen, was originally intended to be an acronym) and flying saucer were both popular terms for use in the discussion of alleged extraterrestrial aircraft, many today would argue against the use of either term, instead calling for the use of unexplained aerial phenomenon or UAP. It’s a nice way of taking an expression that was intended to be ambiguous, and replacing it with something even more ambiguous… and paradoxically, in an effort toward making sure we’re all on the same page in terms of what we’re talking about!

As far as this subject is concerned, it looks like there’s still an awful lot that gets lost in translation… even when we’re all speaking the same language. But one thing we can (hopefully) agree on would be that, in the event that “UAP” does ever become the new norm when discussing aerial mysteries of this sort, it’s definitely an abbreviation and not an acronym… at least until some wise-ass comes along and starts saying, “it’s pronounced Ooh-app!”


List of astronomy acronyms

This is a compilation of initialisms and acronyms commonly used in astronomy. Most are drawn from professional astronomy, and are used quite frequently in scientific publications. A few are frequently used by the general public or by amateur astronomers.

The acronyms listed below were placed into one or more of these categories:

  • Astrophysics terminology – physics-related acronyms
  • Catalog – collections of tabulated scientific data
  • Communications network – any network that functions primarily to communicate with spacecraft rather than performing astronomy
  • Data – astrophysical data not associated with any single catalog or observing program
  • Celestial object – acronyms for natural objects in space and for adjectives applied to objects in space
  • Instrumentation – telescope and other spacecraft equipment, particularly detectors such as imagers and spectrometers
  • Meeting – meetings that are not named after organizations
  • Observing program – astronomical programs, often surveys, performed by one or more individuals may include the groups that perform surveys
  • Organization – any large private organization, government organization, or company
  • Person – individual people
  • Publication – magazines, scientific journals, and similar astronomy-related publications
  • Software – software excluding catalogued data (which is categorized as "catalog") and scientific images
  • Spacecraft – any spacecraft except space telescopes

  • 1RXH – (catalog) 1st ROSAT X-ray HRI, a catalog of sources detected by ROSAT in pointed observations with its High Resolution Imager
  • 1RXS – (catalog) 1ROSAT X-ray Survey, a catalog of sources detected by ROSAT in an all-sky survey
  • 2dF – (instrumentation) Two-degree Field, spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope
  • 2dFGRS – (observing program) Two-degree-Field Galaxy Redshift Survey
  • 2D-FRUTTI - (instrumentation) Two Dimensional Photon Counting System
  • 2MASP – (catalog) Two-Micron All Sky Survey Prototype, an early version of the 2MASS catalog
  • 2MASS – (observing program/catalog) Two-Micron All Sky Survey, an all-sky survey in the near-infrared also, the catalog of sources from the survey
  • 2MASSI – (catalog) Two-Micron All Sky Survey, Incremental release, one of the versions of the 2MASS catalog
  • 2MASSW – (catalog) Two-Micron All Sky Survey, Working database, one of the versions of the 2MASS catalog
  • 2SLAQ – (observing program) 2dF-SDSSLRG And QSO survey
  • 6dF – (instrumentation) Six-degree Field, spectrograph on the UKST
  • A&A – (publication) Astronomy & Astrophysics, a European scientific journal
  • AAA – (organization) Amateur Astronomers Association of New York
  • AAO – (organization) Australian Astronomical Observatory (prior to 1 July 2010: Anglo-Australian Observatory)
  • AAS – (organization) American Astronomical Society
  • AAT – (telescope) Anglo-Australian Telescope
  • AAVSO – (organization) American Association of Variable Star Observers
  • ABBA – ADC Backend For Bolometer Array
  • ABRIXAS – (observing program) A BRoadband Imaging X-ray All-sky Survey
  • AC – (catalog) Catalogue Astrographique
  • ACE – (spacecraft) Advanced Composition Explorer
  • ACIS – (instrumentation) Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer, an instrument on the Chandra X-Ray Observatory
  • ACM – (meeting) Asteroids, Comets, and Meteors
  • ACP – (instrumentation) – Aerosol Collector and Pyrolyser, an instrument on the Huygens probe
  • ACS – (instrumentation) Advanced Camera for Surveys, an instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope
  • ACV – (celestial object) Alpha Canes Venatici, a class of rotating variable stars with strong magnetic fields named after Alpha Canum Venaticorum (Cor Caroli), the archetype for the class
  • ACYG – (celestial object) Alpha CYGni, a class of rotating variable stars named after Alpha Cygni (Deneb), the archetype for the class
  • ADAF – (astrophysics terminology) Advection Dominated Accretion Flow, a mechanism by which matter is slowly accreted onto a black hole
  • ADC – (organization) Astronomical Data Center
  • Astrophysics Data and Information Services
  • ADF – (organization) Astrophysics Data Facility
  • ADS – (catalog) Aitken Double Stars
  • ADS - The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory/NASA astrophysics data system, an on-line database of almost all astronomical publications
  • ADIS – (organization) Astrophysics Data and Information Services
  • ADS – (organization) Astrophysics Data Service, an organization that maintains an online database of scientific articles
  • Air Force Research Laboratory
  • AG – (organization) Astronomische Gesellschaft
  • AGAPE – (observing program) Andromeda Galaxy and Amplified Pixels Experiment, a search for microlenses in front of the Andromeda Galaxy
  • AGB – (celestial object) Asymptotic Giant Branch, a type of red giant star
  • AGC - Arecibo general catalog
  • AGK – (catalog) Astronomische Gesellschaft Katalog
  • AGN – (celestial object) Active Galactic Nucleus
  • AGU – (organization) American Geophysical Union
  • AIM – (spacecraft) Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere, a spacecraft that will study the Noctilucent clouds
  • AIPS – (software) Astronomical Image Processing System
  • AJ – (publication) Astronomical Journal
  • ALaMO – (organization) Automated Lunar and Meteor Observatory
  • ALEXIS – (instrumentation) Array of Low Energy X-ray Imaging Sensors
  • ALMA – (telescope) Atacama Large Millimeter/Sub-millimeter Array
  • ALPO – (organization) Association of Lunar and Planetary Observers
  • AMANDA – (telescope) Antarctic Muon And Neutrino Detector Array, a neutrino telescope
  • AMASE – (software) Astrophysics Multi-spectral Archive Search Engine
  • AMS – (organization) American Meteor Society
  • AN – (publication) Astronomische Nachrichten, a German scientific journal
  • ANS – (telescope) Astronomical Netherlands Satellite
  • ANS – (organization) Astro News Service
  • ANSI – (organization) American National Standards Institute
  • AO – (instrumentation) Adaptive Optics
  • AOR – (instrumentation) Astronomical Observation Request
  • ApJ – (publication) Astrophysical Journal
    • ApJL – (publication) Astrophysical Journal Letters
    • ApJS – (publication) Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
    • B – (catalog) Barnard catalog
    • BAA – (organization) British Astronomical Association
    • BAAS – (publication) Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society
    • BAC – (catalog) Bordeaux Astrographic Catalog
    • BAO – (organization) Beijing Astronomical Observatory
    • BASIS – (observing program) Burst and All Sky Imaging Survey
    • BAT – (instrumentation) Burst Alert Telescope, an instrument on SWIFT
    • BATC – (observing program) Beijing-Arizona-Taiwan-Connecticut, the name of a multi-wavelength sky survey
    • BATSE – (instrument) Burst and Transient Source Experiment, an instrument on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory
    • BATTeRS – (telescope) Bisei Asteroid Tracking Telescope for Rapid Survey
    • BB – (astrophysics terminology) Black Body
    • BBXRT – (telescope) Broad Band X-Ray Telescope
    • BCD – (celestial object) Blue Compact Dwarf
    • BCD – (software) Basic Calibrated Data, data produced after basic processing
    • BCEP – (celestial object) Beta CEPhei, a class of pulsating variable stars for which Beta Cephei is the archetypal object
      • also BCE
      • also BHXT
      • also BLL
      • also BS
      • C - Cambridge Catalog, 2C (Second Cambridge Catalog), 3C (Third Cambridge Catalog)
      • CADC – (organization) Canadian Astronomy Data Centre
      • CAHA – (organization) Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán, a German-Spanish Astronomical Centre
      • CANDELS – (survey) Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey or Cosmic Assembly and Dark Energy Legacy Survey
      • CAPS – (instrumentation) Cassini Plasma Spectrometer, an instrument on the Cassini spacecraft
      • CARA – (organization) California Association for Research in Astronomy
      • CARA – (organization) Center for Astrophysical Research in Antarctica
      • [2]
      • CASS – (organization) Center for Advanced Space Studies
      • CBAT – (organization) Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams
      • CBR – (celestial object) Cosmic Background Radiation
      • CC – (celestial object) Candidate Companion, a newly detected observed object that initially appears to orbit another celestial object
      • CCD – (instrumentation) Charge Coupled Device
      • CCD – (astrophysics terminology) – Color-Color Diagram, a plot that compares the differences between magnitudes in different wave bands
      • CCDM – (catalog) Catalog of Components of Double and Multiple Stars
      • CCO – (catalog) Catalogue of Cometary Orbits
      • CCO – (celestial object) Central Compact Object, a compact star in the center of a planetary nebulae
      • CCS – (celestial object) Cool Carbon Star
      • CD – (catalog) Cordoba Durchmusterung
      • CDIMP – (catalog) Catalogue of Discoveries and Identifications of Minor Planets
      • CDM – (astrophysics terminology) Cold Dark Matter, any model for structure formation in the universe that characterize "cold" particles such as WIMPs as dark matter
      • CDS – (organization) Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg
      • CELT – (telescope) – California Extremely Large Telescope, an older name for the Thirty Meter Telescope
      • CEMP – (celestial object) Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor, a type of carbon star
        • CEMP-no – (celestial object) Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor star with no enhancement of elements produced by the r-process or s-processnucleosynthesis
        • CEMP-r – (celestial object) Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor star with an enhancement of elements produced by r-processnucleosynthesis
        • CEMP-s – (celestial object) Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor star with an enhancement of elements produced by s-processnucleosynthesis
        • CEMP-r/s – (celestial object) Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor star with an enhancement of elements produced by both r-process and s-processnucleosynthesis
        • also CIB
        • also CMB, CBR, MBR
        • also CM
        • also CSPNe (plural form of CSPN)
        • CWA – (celestial object) Cepheid W Virginis A, a subclass of CW stars that that vary in brightness on timescales of less than 8 days
        • CWB – (celestial object) Cepheid W Virginis B, a subclass of CW stars that vary in brightness on timescales greater than 8 days
        • DAO – (organization) Dominion Astrophysical Observatory
        • DCEP – (celestial object) Delta CEPhei, a class of Cepheids named after Delta Cephei, the archetype for the class
        • DDEB – (celectial object) Double-lined eclipsing binary
        • DENIS – (observing program/catalog) DEep Near Infrared Survey
        • DENIS-P – (catalog) DEep Near Infrared Survey, Provisory designation [or also known as DNS].
        • DES – (observing program) Dark Energy Survey
        • DES – (observing program) Deep Ecliptic Survey
        • DIB – (celestial object) Diffuse Interstellar Band, an absorption feature in stellar spectra with an interstellar origin
        • DIRBE – (instrumentation) Diffuse InfraRed Background Experiment, a multiwavelength infrared detector used to map dust emission
        • DISR – (instrumentation) – Descent Imager/Spectral Radiometer, an instrument on the Huygens probe
        • DMR – (instrumentation) Differential Microwave Radiometer, a microwave instrument that would map variations (or anisotropies) in the CMB
        • DN – (celestial object) Dwarf Nova
        • DNS – (celestial object) Double Neutron Star, another name for a binary neutron star system. [Caution: Do not confuse with DNS relating to DENIS – Deep Near Infrared Survey].
        • DPOSS – (data) Digitized Palomar Observatory Sky Survey
        • DS – (celestial object) Dwarf Star
        • DSCT – Delta SCuTi, a class of pulsating variable stars named after Delta Scuti, the archetype for the class
        • DSN – (communications network) Deep Space Network, a network of radio antennas used for communicating to spacecraft
        • DSS – (data) Digitized Sky Survey
        • DWE – (instrumentation) – Doppler Wind Experiment, an instrument on the Huygens probe
        • E – (celestial object) Eclipsing, a binary star system with variable brightness in which the stars eclipse each other
          • EA – (celestial object) Eclipsing Algol, a class of eclipsing binary stars named after Algol, the archetype for the class
          • EB – (celestial object) Eclipsing Beta Lyrae, a class of eclipsing binary stars named after Beta Lyrae, the archetype for the class
          • EW – (celestial object) Eclipsing W Ursa Majoris, a class of eclipsing binary stars named after W Ursa Majoris, the archetype for the class
          • FAME – (telescope) Full-sky Astrometric Mapping Explorer
          • FASTT – (telescope) Flagstaff Astrometric Scanning Transit Telescope
          • FCC – (catalog) Fornax Cluster Catalog, a catalog of galaxies in the Fornax Cluster
          • FEB – (celestial object) Falling-Evaporating Body, a solid planetary object that is being evaporated by the stellar wind
          • FGS – (instrumentation) Fine Guidance Sensors, an instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope
          • FHST – (instrumentation) Fixed Head Star Trackers, an instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope
          • FIR – (astrophysics terminology) Far InfraRed
          • FIRST – (observing program) Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-centimeters, a radio survey of the sky with the Very Large Array
          • FIRST – (telescope) Far InfraRed and Submillimeter Space Telescope, an older name for the Herschel Space Observatory
          • FIRAS – (Instrumentation) Far-InfraRed Absolute Spectrophotometer
          • FITS – (software) Flexible Image Transport System, the format commonly used for scientific astronomy images
          • FLAMES – (instrumentation) Fibre Large Array Multi Element Spectrograph, instrument on the VLT
          • FLOAT – (telescope) Fibre-Linked Optical Array Telescope
          • FLWO – (telescope) Fred L. Whipple Observatory
          • FMO – (celestial object) Fast Moving Object, an asteroid so close to the Earth that it appears to be moving very fast
          • FOC – (instrumentation) Faint Object Camera, a camera formerly on the Hubble Space Telescope
          • FOCAS – (instrumentation) Faint Object Camera And Spectrograph, an instrument for the Subaru Telescope
          • FOS – (instrumentation) Faint Object Spectrograph, a spectrometer formerly on the Hubble Space Telescope
          • FOV – (instrumentation) Field Of View
          • FRED – (astrophysics terminology) Fast Rise Exponential Decay, the variations in the luminosity of gamma ray bursts over time
          • FSC – (catalog) Faint Source Catalogue, one of the catalogs produced using Infrared Astronomical Satellite data
          • FTL – (astrophysics terminology) Faster Than Light
          • FUOR – (celestial object) FU Orionis objects, a class of variablepre–main sequence stars named after FU Orionis, the archetype for the class
            • also FU
            • G – (catalog) Giclas, a catalog of nearby stars
            • GAIA – (telescope) Global Astrometric Interferometer for Astrophysics, a planned space telescope that will be used to make high-precision measurements of stars
            • GALEX – (telescope) Galaxy Evolution Explorer, an ultraviolet space telescope
            • GASP – (software) Guide star Astrometric Support Package
            • GAT – (catalog) AO (Gatewood+), catalog of G. Gatewood's observations
            • GBT – (telescope) Green Bank Telescope
            • GC – (catalog) General Catalog, a catalog of clusters, nebulae, and galaxies created by John Herschel and now superseded by the New General Catalogue
            • GCAS – (celestial object) Gamma CASsiopeiae, a class of eruptive variable stars named after Gamma Cassiopeiae, the archetype for the class
            • GCMS – (instrumentation) – Gas Chromatograph and Mass Spectrometer, an instrument on the Huygens probe
              • also GC/MS
              • also HRS
              • also GSC II
              • HAeBe – (celestial object) Herbig AeBe star, a type of pre–main sequence star with strong spectral emission lines
                • HAe – (celestial object) Herbig Ae star
                • HBe – (celestial object) Herbig Be star

                model for structure formation in the universe that characterizes neutrinos as dark matter


                Some think that behavioral science is a "soft science," full of intuitive information and fluff. Here are 10 findings from the field that might make you think twice about this.

                Some think that behavioral science is a "soft science," full of intuitive information and fluff. Here are 10 findings from the field that might make you think twice about this.


                Middle English wis, from Old English wīs akin to Old High German wīs wise, Old English witan to know — more at wit

                Middle English, from Old English wīse akin to Old High German wīsa manner, Greek eidos form, idein to see — more at wit

                Middle English, from Old English wīsian akin to Old Norse vīsa to show the way, Old English wīs wise

                Middle English, from Old English -wīsan, from wīse manner


                Building a community

                The program was started in 2007 by then Dean of the College of Science, David Westfall, and was directed by Associate Dean Gina Tempel before Duckworth took on the role in 2019. Since its onset, it has been structured in a way that fosters strong relationships between the women from the start. In the early weeks of the semester, the incoming cohort participates in an overnight retreat at Grizzly Creek Ranch near Portola, California where they spend time getting to know one another while enjoying fun outdoor activities such as a challenge course, night hiking, s&rsquomores roasting and stargazing with the University&rsquos Astronomy Club. These same freshmen are then all housed together on the same floor of the Great Basin Residence Hall, the newest of the University&rsquos student housing options.

                &ldquoCommunity is so important to young students,&rdquo Duckworth said. &ldquoThis is particularly true for young women who are pursuing some of the most challenging degrees at the University. The WiSE program offers a built-in support system from the very start.&rdquo

                WiSE students also take two courses as a cohort, one in the fall and one in the spring, that strengthen the sense of community across living and learning environments. The SCI 110 course taught in the fall semester introduces students to the wide range of campus resources created to provide students with academic and sociocultural support. This class proved to be so successful within the WiSE program that the College recently decided to offer it to all College of Science freshmen.

                &ldquoWe want information about campus resources to be in the minds of every first-year student,&rdquo Duckworth said. &ldquoWe want them to feel comfortable accessing these resources as part of ensuring their academic successful and personal growth.&rdquo

                Lexi Robertson (left) with 3 cowokers from Wood Rogers volunteering at Tesla's "Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day" Feb. 2019. Photo provided by Lexi Roberston

                Unique to WiSE students and to students in the College of Science Living and Learning Community is the SCI 120 course students take in their first spring semester. In this class, WiSE students gain exposure to women with careers they&rsquore likely to pursue. Female professionals working in a wide range of STEM fields, from climatology to psychology, medicine to engineering share their experiences and offer inspiration and advice. The students keep journals to reflect and share their thoughts throughout the course.

                &ldquoBased on their report, WiSE students have benefitted most from the discussions of the ways these women balance different life priorities,&rdquo Duckworth said. &ldquoThey share with our WiSE students the effort required to balance the broader professional goals they have, the immediate professional pressures they manage, and the joys and challenges of their personal lives. Many of our speakers have partners and children. Through the open and respectful exchanges with these professional women, our WiSE students begin to understand that they can flourish in their professional careers and create those personal relationships that sustain us.&rdquo

                The visiting professionals and the exceptional female faculty members in the College of Science serve as invaluable and immediately accessible role models for WiSE students. Students engage with these women through faculty advising, research projects, office visits and even simple campus social events. Duckworth&rsquos own experience speaks to the value of having role models that are representative of one&rsquos own lived experiences.


                A sample of Scientologese

                If you, or anyone reading this has any further acronyms you don't understand not in this list, feel free to send e-mail to [email protected] (Martin Hunt), and it will be added to the FAQ. Keep in mind that this list cannot include all the cult's terminology as contained in the Tech and Admin dictionaries. Only terminology which is current, frequently used on ars, or generally informative will be considered for inclusion in the FAQ.

                See any corrections? Same deal send it along. But keep in mind it would be preferred to keep the descriptions a few lines long. no essays on one term, please!

                Worried about my evident bias? Too bad! I was in the cult, and I see no reason to call it a religion. If it walks like a duck, looks like a duck, quack quack quacks like a duck, then it must be Scientology. Call a spade a spade, I always say.

                Note that this FAQ was written for the purpose of cutting through the recondite cult semantics, using humour and wit. As such, it is not intended to be scholarly or "technically" accurate many of the definitions have been gathered from ars, and many more I wrote myself based on my experience within Scientology. Only the posted definitions from sdraper, nobody, and xpolitic out of Scientology references can be considered accurate, unless you believe the cult's language is irrational nonsense, and in need of explanation by an inside expert.


                Watch the video: Abbreviations and acronyms. English writing lesson (September 2022).