Astronomy

Ancient greeks know about leap day?

Ancient greeks know about leap day?


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I'm reading about Antikythera machine and its functions. So I read about solar cycle and moon cycle and how they used 19 solar years to compare with 235 lunar cycles.

So this is my question: They know about leap day at the time (~ 200 BC)?


Well, they know according to the Metonic Calendar created in ~430 B.C.

To know more about click here.


The History of Leap Year

A leap year is a year with 366 days, instead of the usual 365. Leap years are necessary because the actual length of a year is nearly 365.25 days, not 365 days as commonly stated. Leap years occur every four years, and years that are evenly divisible by four (2020, for example) have 366 days. This extra day is added to the calendar on February 29.

However, there is one exception to the leap year rule involving century years, like the year 1900. Since a year is actually slightly less than 365.25 days, adding an extra day every four years results in about three extra days being added throughout 400 years. For this reason, only one out of every four century years is considered a leap year. Century years are only considered leap years if they are evenly divisible by 400. Therefore, 1700, 1800, 1900, and 2100 were not leap years. But 1600 and 2000 were leap years.


Flawed timetable

The Julian calendar worked so well at first that many countries adopted it. Unfortunately, it was flawed, being 0.0078 of a day (about 11 minutes and 14 seconds) longer than the tropical year.

So, the Julian calendar introduced an error of one day every 128 years, which means that, every 128 years, the tropical year shifts one day backward with respect to the calendar. This made the method for calculating the dates for Easter inaccurate.

As a result, by the year 1582 — thanks to the overcompensation of observing too many leap years — the calendar had fallen out of step with the solar year by a total of 10 days. It was then that Pope Gregory XIII stepped in and, with the advice of a German Jesuit mathematician and astronomer named Christopher Clavius, produced our current Gregorian calendar.

First, to catch things up, 10 days were omitted after Thursday, Oct. 4, 1582, making the next day Friday, Oct. 15. This edict was most unpopular many people felt that 10 days had been taken from their lives. There were riots in the streets throughout Europe, and workers demanded their 10 days' pay — forgetting, conveniently, that they hadn't worked those 10 days! Thankfully, the hubbub eventually died down.

Next, to more closely match the length of the tropical year, "century years" were declared not to be leap years (though they had been leap years in the old Julian calendar). The exceptions were those century years divisible by 400.

And that's why the year 2000 was a leap year, but 1700, 1800 and 1900 were not.


2. Julius Caesar introduced Leap Day, with help from the Egyptians.

The Mercedonius-when-we-feel-like-it system apparently irked Caesar, the general-turned-consul-turned-dictator of Rome who drastically altered the course of European history. In addition to conquering Gaul and transforming Rome from a republic into an empire, Caesar re-ordered the Roman calendar, giving us the blueprint off of which much of the world still operates to this day.

During his time in Egypt, Caesar became convinced of the superiority of the Egyptian solar calendar, which featured 365 days and an occasional intercalary month which was inserted when astronomers observed the correct conditions in the stars. Caesar and the philosopher Sosigenes of Alexandria made one important modification: instead of relying on the stars, they would simply add a day to every fourth year. In keeping with the Roman tradition of messing with the length of February, that day would fall in the second month of the year—thus Leap Day was born. Caesar added two extra-long months to the year 46 BCE to make up for missed intercalations, and the Julian Calendar took effect on January 1st, 45 BCE.


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About 3 minutes 48 seconds into the podcast, Fraser asks if the ancients had more than one name for Mercury. His beloved Sumerians had first noticed Mercury in the third millennium BC, but the Greeks gave the planet two different names, depending on the time of day. They called it Apollo when it was morning star and Hermes when it appeared as the evening star. However, Heraclitus the Greek knew that they were the same object, and even said that both Mercury and Venus orbit the Sun, not the Earth.

Eudoxus or Exodus?
Let’s see, the ‘x’ in Eudoxus is letter number 5, but Pamela repeatedly puts it in the position of letter number 2. This kind of error could mislead people into searching for the Book of Exodus, and is much more than just a simple mispronunciation. Can this word be corrected for a final edit?


Ancient greeks know about leap day? - Astronomy

Astronomy is the study of planets, stars and other objects in the universe. It is the branch of science that deals with celestial objects, space, and the physical universe as a whole. But how do we know all this? A lot of the knowledge we got about astronomy comes from the Greeks. They made some very important contributions to the knowledge we have about astronomy today. A lot of the information we have today, was information we received from the Greeks. Here’s some info our modern society has learned from Greek astronomy. Believe it or not astronomy was used to predict things. For example some ancient greek astronomers thought that eclipses were the gods and goddesses way of warning the people on earth.

No one knows exactly how astronomy begin except for God. Astronomy started with poeple looking up at the sky and curiousity took it from there. Maybe a shotting star caught the attention of a cave man and the curiousity of wanting to know what is up there got carried from generation to generation and finally someone who was curious enough to do something about their curiosity started astronomy. Back then people looked in the sky for answers from the gods. They thought that the location of the stars had something to do with the best place to build their house. They wanted to know more about what is outside of this world and if there is any celestial life. Astronomy started in about 5000 bc, but n o one knows exactly when. Astronomy only started because people looked up at the sky and grew curious of what was up there. Star gazing started all the way back when cavemen roamed the earth and thats all we know,but with the help of astronomers we can find more about space, astronomy, and if there is celestial life upon us. We might not know but we will find out, someway, somehow.

What contributions did the greeks make to the feild of astronomy?

The Ancient Greeks made many contributions to the field of astronomy. For example, Aristarchus found out that the sun is larger than the earth. Aristarchus found that out by looking at earths shadow during an eclipse. He knew that the light for the shadow had to come from the sun because where else would that much light come from? The sun had to be larger than the earth to make a shadow of it. Greek named Anaxagoras was the one who discovered the eclipses and how they worked. They were curious about the eclipse because they thought that the eclipse was a sign or a warning from one of the greek gods. Also, the Greek astronomer named Thales was the one who discovered the earth was in the shape of a sphere. Another Greek astronomer, Aristarchus was the one who discovered that the earth revolved around the sun. But, there was one problem with his theory, they weren’t sure if the stars were in the way. Also, the Greeks were the ones who created the calendars. They created the calendars by tracking the position of the sun and the moon to interpret days and nights. Also, the Greeks would divide the calendar into 12 months and they had about 19 periods of time. So, they had 235 months, and about 6940 days. Now, we use calendars to keep track of important events and to keep track of important things, such as work/school days. he calendar was also made based on the moon cycles.The Greeks also figured out that the moon revolved around the earth, while the earth revolves around the sun. Also, the Greeks were the ones who found and located the first five planets, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. Some other astronomers observed that the earth movement was related to the movement of the stars. That triggered another theory which had to do with the parallax. The parallax theory was the theory that if there was no parallax that meant that the sun went around the earth or the stars were too far to be able to see the parallax with the naked eye. Turns out there was a parallax they just couldnt see it with our naked eye, they just needed more advanced technology like the telescope. Those are the contributions the Greeks made to astronomy.

What items did they use to find out about other planets?

They used an analog computer called the Antikythera Mechanism which was used to locate celestial and astronomical objects in space such as moons, planets, and stars. That information helped NASA navigate their way to the moon. NASA gathered very important information from their trip to space which is still used today in our world. Another tool they used was a long tube, soon named the telescope. They used telescopes to get a closer view at space. At first it was just a tube but soon developed with lenses and turned into the modern telescope we use presently. They also used an instrument called a spectrometer. Spectrometers were used to measure how much light came from stars.


Ancient Greek architecture has influenced many architectural styles of today. The use of columns and pediments for example, is a direct legacy from ancient Greece and is omnipresent in modern-day public buildings, such as parliament buildings, museums and even memorials. Come to think of it, the use of architecture as an art form, more than a utilitarian science comes from ancient Greek culture and is visible in constructions like the Acropolis of Athens or the sanctuary of Delphi.


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7. How to Build Temples?

Just try to think about how many temples the Greeks built… they basically lifted and transported heavy materials all the time! It should come as no surprise, then, that the crane was an essential piece of technology in Ancient Greece. Archaeologists have found several holes on the blocks of Greek temples pointing to the existence of cranes from 515 BC!


Did the ancient Greeks get their ideas from the Africans?

The sitcoms you watch on TV have their roots in classical Greek comedy. The algorithms that fuel the Internet infrastructure you use are based on Greek mathematics. The doctors that save lives every day first take an oath based on a treatise written by the Greek physician Hippocrates. Even the scientific method dates back to ancient Greece.

We here in the modern world owe much to the advancements of the classical Greeks, that much is clear. But have you ever wondered where the Greeks got their ideas?

From 1900 to 1100 B.C., a great civilization reigned over what is now present-day Greece. The Mycenaens created works of art, established trade with other nations and lived in great cities. And then suddenly, mysteriously, the Mycenaean culture collapsed. Greece fell into darkness.

Nomadic tribes came from the North to where a bustling, urbane civilization once stood. Trade ceased, and Greece turned inward. For 500 years Greece stood silent, in what historians now call the Greek Dark Ages. And then, almost overnight in historical terms, a new dawn broke over Greece. Homer created his epic poems the "Iliad" and the "Odyssey," emphasizing honor and virtue to his new countrymen. Trade resumed, once separate city-states united into a democratic republic. Classical Greece was born.

­Where did this meteoric rise to prominence come from? Scholars attribute much of Greece's development to its internalization. For 500 years it was peacefully allowed to redevelop itself, astoundingly without any outside threats. But the loftiest of the pursuits of the Greeks would not have been possible were it not for another nearby civilization, one that was established millennia before even Mycenae was founded. The culture was called Kemet. You know it as Egypt.

The civilization that built the Sphinx, raised the pyramids and built the world's first library also produced the world's first physician, created geometry and astronomy and were among the first to explore the nature of our existence. And they passed their knowledge along to the Greeks. Modern people, in turn, have benefited greatly from this early education.

So what exactly did the Greeks learn from the Kemites? Find out on the next page.


Ancient greeks know about leap day? - Astronomy

Written by Marques Coleman, Contributing Writer, Classical Wisdom

We live in a fast-paced world where new technologies emerge every day. For many of us, it’s hard to believe that some of the things (and concepts) that we use today were invented by Greeks many centuries ago.

Let’s take a look at the list of top ten Greek inventions that changed the world for the better.

The first Olympics took place on the wide plains of Olympia in ancient Greece in 776 B.C. The Games included competitions in the following disciplines:

  • Pentathlon (a combination of running, jumping, and discus throw)
  • Wrestling
  • Boxing
  • Pankration (a primitive form of martial art)
  • Chariot racing

In the ancient Olympics , winners got olive wreaths instead of medals. Unlike the modern Olympic games, the ancient Greeks only named one winner for the whole event. At that time, the idea of competition was “all or nothing”. Therefore, the only thing that counted was the first place.

In 1896, inspired by the ancient Olympics, Pierre de Coubertin began what we know today as the Olympic games. What do the Olympics means to us today? The games unite hundreds of nations, giving millions of people a way to celebrate the sports they love together.

Do you go to the theater to see a play or watch a band play? You can say “thank you” to Greeks for this remarkable invention.

The very first plays were performed in the ancient theaters in Athens. Spectators were amazed by this new form of entertainment, and demand grew. Theaters began to appear in many Greek cities, most of them large, open-air structures built on the side of a hill with a capacity of up to 20,000 spectators..

The ancient Greeks used drama to investigate the world they lived in, asking: “What does it mean to be a human?” In trying to answer the question, they developed three genres of drama: comedy, tragedy, and satyr plays.

Fresco in the gallery of the Palazzo Medici-Riccardi in Florence: Charon’s boat, the sleep of Night and Morpheus by Luca Giordano (1684–1686)

Themistocles, an Athenian statesman and general, used maritime power and military skills to win Persian wars. To help his army navigate the sea, Themistocles built the first lighthouse in the 5th century B.C. Basically, it was a small stone column with a fire beacon located in the harbor at Piraeus.

Later, Greeks build many lighthouses that served sailors as a navigational aid. One of the most famous lighthouses of ancient times is the Lighthouse of Alexandria. It was constructed during the reign of Ptolemy II (280-247 B.C.) and later named one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

Today, most of us live in democratic countries. But do you know where the concept of democracy comes from? Yes, you’ve guessed it: ancient Greece.

Researchers believe that democracy and the concept of a constitution came out of ancient Athens around 508 B.C. The Greeks transformed the country they lived in. They said “no” to exploitation by the aristocracy and built a political system where all society members had equal rights and some degree of political power. With democracy, they set a new direction for the development of nations that has changed world history.

Types of columns: Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian.

Architectural columns

The ancient Greeks were talented architects. They invented three types of columns to support their buildings: Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian.

In 2020, we still admire the beauty of the buildings with columns. The Temple of Zeus, the Pantheon, the Colosseum, the Lincoln Memorial, the U.S. Capitol, the New York Stock Exchange, and the Manchester Central Library are all examples of architectural masterpieces that feature the columns of the ancient Greeks.

Do you remember Archimedes ’ famous quote: “Give me a place to stand and I will move the world”? Archimedes said this phrase in 260 B.C. after he explained the properties of the levers and broadened the area of their application. He was the first man who described the underlying ratios of force, load, and distance from the fulcrum point and provided a law governing levers’ use.

Levers are a primitive pulley system that allows us to lift heavy objects with ease. Do we use levers in 2020? Yes, we do. Seesaws, balance scales, crowbars, manual can openers, and many other objects that make our lives easier are modified levers.

For us modern people, it’s hard to imagine not having a shower. Prior to their invention by ancient Greeks, however, it was even harder to imagine having a shower!

The very first Greek showers were located in public bathing facilities. With the help of the aqueduct system, the water was pumped into these facilities through the pipes.

Thanks to the Greeks’ invention, today, we can take a shower whenever we like. It’s a small thing we can be thankful for.

Greek inventions changed the world for good, and that’s a fact. They inspired other nations and subsequent generations to live a better, more comfortable, and more enjoyable lives. The ancient Greeks gifted us with incredible discoveries that still play an important role in our lives today.

Marques Coleman is a researcher and freelance writer. You can find his works on educational platforms like Subjecto and SupremeDissertations and writing sites like TopEssayWriting and ClassyEssay . Marques is fond of Ancient Greek history and discoveries.


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